**Exam
Study Guide**

Your best study strategy is to go back through the lectures and make sure you understand each of the topics covered.

The topics I may question you on may include the topics:

Distributed Ledger concepts and technologies

Consensus in bitcoin

Various concepts discussed pertaining to bitcoin and it's algorithms, including (for example) double-spending, anonymity, network access (open/closed), etc.

Bitcoin's money supply

Early history of bitcoin

Bitcoin mining (algorithms, hash rate concepts, consensus algorithms, etc.)

Fundamentals of bitcoin transactions (inputs, outputs, references, etc.)

Transaction fees (details and purpose)

Merkle Trees and proofs (Merkle Path concepts)

Transaction fees

Genesis Block concepts and details

Block structure and "eventual" consensus concepts (how do blocks get added to the chain? what about conflicting branches (aka forks)?)

Bitcoin's mining puzzle, details

Coinbase transactions

Mining and Target Difficulty Calculation

Retargeting of the difficulty across nodes

Unspent transactions (UTXO Set)

Bitcoin scripting concepts and details (locking, unlocking)

Bitcoin keys and addresses (including algorithms)

Properties of the exclusive-or operation

Properties of finite fields

Properties of randomness and entropy

Asymmetric v. Symmetric ciphers

Stream ciphers v. block ciphers (advantages/disadvantages of each)

Hashing algorithms and fundamentals

Concepts around collision and resistant algorithms

Digital Signatures

**Example Exam Questions:**

1.
The default Bitcoin
network protocol’s listening port is 8333. True or False?

1.
True

2.
False

2.
Bitcoin’s
money supply is algorithmically designed to reduce over time
according to a “fixed” schedule, about *every four years.* True or False?

1.
True

2.
False

3.
How is the
value of a bitcoin determined?

1.
Via a Bloom Filter
algorithm

2.
By market demand
like most other currencies

3.
By distributed
consensus based on elliptic curves

4.
According to a fixed
rate of return

5.
By using a one time
pad

4.
Which of the
following are properties of Finite Fields (Circle All That
Apply)?

1.
Closed Property

2.
Subtractive Identity

3.
Multiplicative
Identity

4.
If α
is in the set and α ≠ 0, α^{-1}
is also in the set, such that α
x (α^{-1}) = 1

5.
Additive Inverse

5.
A hash function *H*
is said to be collision-resistant if it is _______________ to
find two values, *x* and *y*, such that *x*
≠ *y* and *H(x)* = *H(y)* (fill in the
blank)

1.
Rather unlikely

2.
Rarely

3.
Possible

4.
Computationally
infeasible

5.
Impossible

6.
In the context of
our discussions, Merkle-Damgård is an example of:

1.
Elliptic Curve
Cryptography

2.
A Merkle Tree

3.
A compression
function

4.
A Danish pastry

5.
A specific finite
field

7.
Any input bitcoin
value not redeemed in an output is considered
a ________________